One of the reactions to the "naturalism" of the Victorian era was Art Nouveau. The Victorians applied the forms of nature onto the surface of their newly industrialized architecture and product design. The craft-oriented artisans rebelled against this industrial production by developing furniture and architecture that was unable to be mass-produced but reflected their dedication to the crafted hand-made product.
The movement used the underlying forms of the organic world. The Art Nouveau designer used the arch of the calla lily stem as the design theme for the support of a desk or bookcase. Henry van de Velde and Victor Horta integrated these sweeping forms into beautiful furniture and striking interior spaces in France and Belgium. The organic forms,as seen in the Eclipse Fan, were the basis of the design, not just applied to the surface.
The Art Nouveau was very influential although short lived; the rebellion against the machine could not be sustained.